Political turmoil marked the past decade in Kyrgyzstan, as widespread social unrest had led to the unseating of two of the country’s heads of state. While a peaceful shift from presidential to parliamentary form of government was achieved in 2010, Kyrgyzstan’s development remains marred by several debilitating factors across multiple sectors.
The Asian Development Bank finds that among the primary causes of poverty is the pervasiveness of jobs that do not offer security of tenure and high wages. This has resulted in high unemployment rates, particularly in urban areas, where only 48 percent of poor people have regular jobs. Although rural areas offer more opportunities, underemployment among its population is seen as a cause for concern, as 31.3 percent of men and 53.5 percent of women work fewer than 25 hours per week.