Safa Joudeh is a doctoral candidate in the Department of Development Studies at SOAS University of London. Her research is on the global organization and geography of joint production. She explores the strategies and organization of new industrial areas, bearing on opportunities for domestic upgrading through global production network integration across sectors, industries, and economies.
Mitigating the pandemic’s most damaging consequences will critically depend on economic policy action taken. This op-ed looks at World Bank conditionality and the cost of privatizing aid, making the case for universal social protection.