Anti-Corruption Commission (ACC) (Myanmar)
The anti-corruption measures in Myanmar can be dated back to the time of colonial era. The Civil Supplies Theft Prevention Committee was first formed on 23 December 1947 to prevent theft and corruption in the provision of government supplies to the public after the 2nd World War. Later the Public Property Protection Committee and the Public Property Protection Police (P-4) were assigned for investigation of such crimes. Actions on bribery and corruption were made in accordance with Chapter IX - 'Of Offences By Or Relating To Public Servants' of the Penal Code, 1861.
In order to more effectively prevent corruption, the Suppression of Corruption Act was enacted in 1948 in which 6 sections were contained. The Act was amended 4 times. Under Section 4-2 of the Act, public servants shall be punishable with imprisonment up to 7 years and the proceeds of the crime shall be confiscated if they commit four kinds of offences prescribed in Section 4-1 such as receiving gratification habitually other than legal remuneration, receiving valuable things for himself or for other person in return for his or his senior official's act, receiving valuable thing or money by abusing his position and fraud or misappropriation of trusted property.
In 1951, the Bureau of Special Investigation Act was enacted and the Special Investigation Administrative Board was formed under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister with a number of staff of 315. The Special Investigation Administrative Board was dissolved in 1963 and the Bureau of Special Investigation has been formed under the Ministry of Home Affairs since then. It was renamed as the Special Investigation Department in 1972.
Governments have done measures to combat and prevent corruption. However, corruption exists and some responsible officials disregard the dignity of the State and their reputation by breaking the law and thus corruption becomes widened as a culture in the society. Corruption includes abuse of authority, bribery and willful misconduct thereby it is of interest to the general public. It has main affects on administration and human rights and also deteriorates the economy, politics and moral ethics. Moreover, it can be an issue of concern by becoming widespread internationally. As global economy is rapidly developing these days, corruption has grown in different characteristics as organized crimes and also trans-nationally. As corruption is committed not only within one country but also in connection with foreign countries, anti-corruption cannot be done by a single country alone.
According to the Transparency International's Corruption Perception Index (CPI), Myanmar ranked 180th in 2011 but in 2015, Myanmar's rank became 147. Since the government is endeavoring to develop domestic businesses and also inviting foreign investments for the enhancement of the national economy, it is needed to improve the CPI ranking. Myanmar will be enhancing its cooperation in anti-corruption activities with countries within the region and with international organizations as well.See more