Ministry of Environment, Nature Protection and Sustainable Development (MINEPDED-Cameroon)
For twenty years, the protection of nature and sustainable development, have the attention of Cameroonian public authorities. Indeed, these two notions have not always been present in the political discourse. The actual consideration of environmental issues by the Government is based on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) or 1992 Rio Summit. It is the starting point for a new dynamic in the national environmental policy. From then on, environment and sustainable development will be an integral part of public policies in Cameroon.
1. Before the 1992 Rio Summit
Although Cameroon has participated in numerous international meetings (Stockholm Conference on the Environment in 1972, World Population Conference in Mexico in 1984) and set up institutions to monitor the evolution of the environment in Cameroon (Standing Committee on Man and the Biosphere (MAB Committee) created in 1984, under Direction of the Environment and Human Establishments set up in 1984 within the Department of Spatial Planning and Environment ,, Ministry of Planning and Regional Planning (MINPAT)), the realization of concrete actions carried out with a view to ensuring sustainable development is hardly perceptible.
In preparation for the Rio Summit, a Ministry of Environment and Forests (MINEF) was created in 1992, one of the first actions of which was the preparation of a national report on the state of the environment in Cameroon.
2. The Rio Summit
From 3 to 14 June 1992, a summit of the earth was held in Rio de Janeiro under the auspices of the United Nations. This United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) is generally considered a success: global priorities have changed in ten years, and with the participation of a hundred heads of state and government, this summit remains today the largest gathering of world leaders. More than 1,500 NGOs were represented.
The Rio Summit kicked off an ambitious agenda of global action against climate change, the protection of biological diversity and the elimination of dangerous toxic products. It resulted in the signing of the Rio Declaration. This declaration, which sets out the lines of action to ensure better management of the planet, advances the concept of the rights and responsibilities of countries in the field of the environment. However, it is not legally binding. On the contrary, it recognizes the sovereignty of states to "exploit their own resources according to their environmental and development policies".
The lines of action that emerged from the summit were: biodiversity, climate change, desertification control, the Declaration on the Management, Conservation and Sustainable Development of Forests, the adoption of an action plan for the twenty-first century (Agenda 21 or Agenda 21) by 173 heads of state at this summit (It describes the sectors where sustainable development must apply in the framework of local authorities).
3. Review of progress since the Rio Summit
The implementation of Agenda 21 has been carried out on the basis of national guidelines consisting on the one hand, to improve the living conditions of the populations and on the other hand, to respect the various commitments made vis-à-vis the international community. Achievements include:
- Assessment of industrial pollution: This study is the work of the Government of Cameroon in collaboration with UNDP and the technical support of UNIDO (October 1995);
- Study for Sustainable Management of Marine and Coastal Ecosystems: carried out by the Government of Cameroon in collaboration with UNDP and co-funding from the Embassy of Canada - Canada - Cameroon Cooperation Fund (CDF) (January 1996);
a. Evaluation of agricultural chemical inputs;
b. Environmental impact studies on dams;
c. Corrective measures of the conservation and development project of the Waza-Logone Region.
To meet these commitments, it was necessary to strengthen the institutional framework: in 1993, the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MINEF) was organized, launching the National Environmental Management Plan (PNGE) finalized in 1996.
In view of the deficiencies of the Ministry of Environment and Forests, the Head of State created by Decree No. 2004/320 of 8 December 2004, a Ministry specifically responsible for the Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP ). The creation of MINEP is part of the concern to bring the contribution of Cameroon to the major world concerns, relating to the fight against the continuous degradation of the Environment and the deficit of the development.
Following the decrees:
- N ° 2004/320 of 8 December 2004 establishing the MINEP,
- N ° 2005/117 of April 14, 2005 concerning the organization of the MINEP,
- N ° 2005/496 of 31 December 2005 amending the provisions of the previous decree,
MINEP is created, organized and reorganized. Its main mission is the development, implementation and
monitoring of environmental policy and nature protection. In this capacity, he is in charge of coordinating and monitoring the interventions of regional or subregional cooperation bodies in the field of the environment.
The implementation of this mission implies the definition of rational management measures of the natural resources, the sensitization of the populations in order to encourage their participation in the management, the protection and the restoration of the environment, the negotiation and the follow-up. the implementation of international conventions and agreements relating to environmental management and the fight against pollution in all its forms.
MINEP's missions derive from the status conferred on it by its creation decree. They are influenced by the national and international context of environmental protection and, as such, are dynamic. According to the problems of the moment, the MINEP determines the priority axes that will guide its action. However, the Department does not have a policy document. As of September 2008, the Department's strategy for 2008 was still under development. Nevertheless, for the year 2009, the MINEP defined a program which integrates six axes related to the recommendations contained in the PRSP:
- Improved environmental management of ecosystems and conservation of biological diversity;
- Promotion of international cooperation on the environment and nature protection;
- Sensitization of the population to the restoration of the environment;
- Pollution management and disaster and natural disaster prevention;
- Promotion of the urban environment and environmentally sustainable industrial development,
- Development and strengthening of institutional capacities and human resources.
For the 2009-2013 program, MINEP has set four (4) objectives at the sectoral level which will guide its actions:
1. Sustainable management of ecosystems and conservation of biodiversity
2. Manage pollution, prevent risks and natural disasters;
3. Promote international cooperation on the environment and nature protection;
4. Develop and strengthen institutional capacities and human resources.
From these sectoral objectives flow the following departmental objectives:
- Manage the environment of forest activities and fight against the illegal exploitation of natural resources
- Sustainable management of marine and coastal ecosystems and inland waters;
- Manage and conserve biological diversity;
- Prevent disasters and natural hazards
- Fight against pollution and nuisances;
- Promote international cooperation through the implementation and monitoring of international agreements and conventions.
These two groups of objectives are grouped into programs and projects. These programs generally aim at three global objectives in coherence with the integral policy of the government:
1. To fight against poverty through sustainable management and protection of the environment;
2. Safeguard ecosystems to ensure sustainable exploitation and rational management of natural resources;
3. To ensure a healthy environment for human and animal health through the implementation of international conventions and the enforcement of national laws.
MINEP's missions reflect the Government's concern to honor its international commitments, to provide people with a healthy living environment and to anticipate the needs of future generations in terms of natural resources.See more