Convention Establishing the Organization for the Development of the Senegal River
Advertising sign near the Senegal-Mauritanian border. This convention was signed on March 11, 1972, in Nouakchott , by the heads of state of Mali, Mauritania and Senegal. It defines the missions and skills of the organization. It provides for the creation of an executive body, the Office of the High Commissioner. It has been amended several times.
It defines the organs of the OMVS. Those are :
the Conference of Heads of State and Government, which defines the policy for cooperation and development within the Organization;
the Council of Ministers, which defines the general policy of development of the river and development of its resources;
the Office of the High Commissioner, which applies the decisions of the Council of Ministers. Its headquarters are in Dakar, Senegal;
the Permanent Water Commission, which is an advisory body to the Council of Ministers, responsible for defining the principles and modalities of the distribution of river water between states, and between water use sectors: industry, agriculture, transport. It is also responsible for investigating projects in Member States that may have a negative impact on the river's waters and plays an important role in controlling water use and pollution control. Another of its missions is to periodically prepare the water resources management plan, based on projections of user needs and a simulation of the management of the system.
Diama. This plan is submitted to the Council of Ministers;
the Regional Planning Committee, composed of representatives of the States, responsible for issuing, for the attention of the Council of Ministers, an advisory opinion on the investment program for the optimal development of the basin's resources. It proposes measures to bring coherence, or even harmonization, of development policies in the basin;
the Advisory Committee, which brings together the representatives of the financing countries and institutions and those of the OMVS, and has a role of assistance to the Office of the High Commissioner, for the research of the financial and human means, and promotion of the exchanges of information.
The presidency is rotated by each of the Member States. In 2002, Mali chairs the OMVS.
The Office of the High Commissioner is funded equally by the Member States.
Convention on the Legal Status of the Senegal River
This agreement was signed on March 11, 1972. The Senegal River and its tributaries receive the status of "international watercourse" in the territories of Mali, Mauritania and Senegal. The Convention guarantees freedom of navigation and equality in all forms of use of the river's water, as well as roads, railways and side canals established for the special purpose of compensating for the lack of navigability or imperfections of the waterway on certain sections of the river and its tributaries.
Article 4 of Title II provides for prior approval by the Contracting States of any project likely to appreciably modify the characteristics of the river.
The period after which the Convention may be denounced by one of the Contracting States has been extended from 10 to 99 years by an amendment adopted on 16 December 1975.
Convention on the Legal Status of Common Works
In 1974, the Contracting States had decided on the principle of common ownership of certain works on the river.
The Convention on the Legal Status of Common Works was signed on 21 December 1978 by the Heads of State and Government of Mali, Mauritania and Senegal. It establishes the legal status of so-called common works (including the conditions required for a work to achieve this status, the conditions of execution of these works, the privileged status granted by the States to the common works) and defines the rights and obligations of the co-owner States as well as the modalities for the creation of management agencies for common structures.
Convention on financing arrangements for common structures
This agreement, signed on May 12, 1982 in Bamako, provides OMVS program financing terms, guarantees mechanisms to lenders (joint and several guarantees) and an allocation key for costs and charges, which can be readjusted when this is done. seems necessary.
Conventions relating to the Diama and Manantali dams
These two agreements, dated January 7, 1997, establish the Diama Management and Mining Agency (SOGED) and the Manantali Energy Management Agency (SOGEM).
Charter of the waters of the Senegal River
This charter, adopted in May 2002, determines:
the principles and modalities of the distribution of water between the different sectors of use;
modalities for review and approval of new projects using water resources;
the rules relating to the preservation and protection of the environment;
the framework and modalities for the participation of water users in making basin resource management decisions.
The Organization for the Development of the Senegal River has developed a Regional Infrastructure Program. He understands :
the construction, in the upper basin, of a regulating dam and a hydroelectric power station (dam and hydroelectric plant of Manantali), on the Bafing, main affluent of the Senegal river;
construction in the delta of an anti-salt dam on the Senegal River (Diama dam);
the development of the river in a permanent waterway, between Saint-Louis and Ambidédi, the construction of a fluvio-maritime port at Saint-Louis, a terminal port at Ambidédi, port stops along the river, construction from an Ambidédi road to Kayes and from a harbor on the river to Kayes.
The Manantali and Diama dams have the following objectives:
regulate the river regime and provide the flow required to irrigate 375,000 hectares of farmland, urban water supply and Saint-Louis year-round river navigation at Ambidédi, maintaining a sufficient draft;
produce about 800 million kilowatt hours of hydroelectric power;
curb natural floods and reduce the impacts of floods;
prevent upwelling of brackish water in the delta during periods of low water;
to improve the filling conditions of the lakes fed by the Senegal River, thus enabling better operation of pumping stations in irrigated agricultural perimeters, industrial units and urban centers.
The Diama Dam was commissioned in November 1985 and the construction works, with a strong French participation, were completed in August 1986. Its essential function is to prevent the intrusion of the salt tongue into the river, and render thus, formerly saline lands of the Delta suitable for agriculture.
Embankments of the Senegal River between Diama and Rosso allow the closure of the Diama, become a reservoir dam (250 to 535 million m 3 ), protection against floods and control of the gravity feed the backwaters delta, right bank and left bank. Construction work on the embankment on the right bank and the rehabilitation of the embankment on the left bank was completed in April 1992 and December 1994, respectively.
The impoundment of the Manantali dam began in July 1987 and continued until September 1991, when the reservoir level reached 208 m 3 for the first time . The tank has a storage volume of 11.3 billion m 3 and a working volume of 8 billion m 3 , and helps regulate flows Bafing, the main tributary of the Senegal River.
This component provides for the irrigation of 3,750 km2 of agricultural land (the Senegal basin comprises 8,000 km2 of arable land), of which 2,400 km2 in Senegal, 1,200 km2 for Mauritania and 90 km2 for Mali. In 2009, 1,378 km2 (37%) were developed, including 940 km2 in Senegal, 421.8 km2 in Mauritania and 7.28 km2 in Mali. The areas cultivated are much lower than those developed: 1.5 km2 Mali, 350 to 400 km2 in Senegal, and 21.2 to 21.5 km2 in Mauritania.
Agricultural production includes cereal production (rice, maize and sorghum) and vegetable production (onion, tomato, melon and okra). Rice production covers 15% of consumption in Senegal and 30% in Mauritania. Other crops are considered (groundnuts, cotton, fruits, fodder and oilseeds).
To enable substantial improvement of irrigated crops, OMVS has developed an action plan. This plan defines the strategic orientation areas, the constraints, the corresponding specific objectives, the activities to be conducted, the cost estimate, the actors involved and the indicative timetable for implementation. Priority will be given to its implementation in order to enable this sector to contribute, like the energy project, to strengthening the economic and social integration of OMVS.
Distribution of electrical energy produced by the Manantali power station (2009)
The Manantali hydroelectric plant cost 280 million euros (US $ 400 million). It has been operating since 2001. It is equipped with five groups of 40 MW each, providing a total power of 200 MW, and producing 800 GWh per year, 9 years out of 10.
The plant is connected to Mali, Mauritania and Senegal by 1,500 km of transmission lines including a Western System and an Eastern System. The supply of energy is made according to the sectorial key in force, ie (in 2009): 52% for Mali, 15% for Mauritania and 33% for Senegal. A private operator, the South African company ESKOM, has been responsible since July 2001 for the exploitation and distribution of energy. The contract that binds him to the OMVS has a duration of 15 years, renewable once. As of March 31, 2003, the Manantali generating station produced 642 GWh, for a total of 25,750 hours of operation. Billing amounts to 24.4 million euros (16.17 billion CFA francs).
The fiber-optic cable has been used to interconnect telecommunications networks in Mali, Mauritania and Senegal, and allows the transit of 33,000 simultaneous telephone calls or 48 television channels. Interconnected to the trans-Atlantic submarine cable, the exat network
today is a nodal point between, on the one hand, West Africa and, on the other hand, South, East and North Africa.
A technical feasibility study for the electrification of villages located in the right-of-way of power lines in the Member States has been carried out. The OMVS has electrified the village of Manantali on own funds and will carry out a test program of rural electrification, about a dozen villages per country.
In the OMVS Integrated Development Program, the River Navigation Project is considered to be the backbone of a mesh network of land transport modes, including main and secondary roads, including feeder roads. main hydraulic works (the Diama and Manantali dams) and the Dakar-Bamako railway line .
The project intends to take advantage of the increase in low-water flows from the river, due to dams, to create a high-capacity waterway with port infrastructure. The aim is to promote the economic development of the basin, to develop natural resources, to increase trade within the basin and the international trade of the Member States and to improve access to external markets in isolated regions. basin and territory of Mali.
The project involves the construction of works and supplies divided into two structuring components (airworthiness and port infrastructure). Its realization will be done in two stages.
The first concerns the development of a navigable channel in the minor bed, to ensure the passage of boats and barges with a draft of less than 1.50 m and support for operators interested in the resumption of fishing activities. transport on the river. The length of this lane is approximately 905 km2. It allows year-round navigation on the river between Saint-Louis , located at the mouth of the river, and Ambidebi (downstream from Kayes ) in Mali. The waterway allows an annual capacity of 10 million tons of freight. The financing of feasibility and implementation studies is provided by the Islamic Development Bank (IDB).
The second stage concerns the study of cabotage and its realization between the port of Dakar and that of Nouakchott. It includes the partial layout of the river and its markings, for a minimum width of the navigable passes on thresholds (35 m wide at the floor and a depth of reference of 150 m), to guarantee a draft of 1.10 m at 1.20 m. It provides for minor improvements for seven existing stopovers: Rosso , Richard-Toll , Podor , Boghe , Kaedi , Matam and Bakel. A sea / river device securing the passage of boats and coasters fluvio-maritime is under study. Finally, an inventory of fleet characteristics, a private facilities management project and a legal, regulatory and organizational framework for navigation are also underway.
Problems with drinking water supply and sanitation are a major concern of the OMVS authorities. The network of drinking water supply and sanitation infrastructure remains below the needs of the population, despite the investments made by the Member States and the populations.
The coverage rate for drinking water (modern wells, boreholes equipped and water supply) is about 60%. The sewerage system is very underdeveloped, and about 80% of households use traditional latrines. To overcome these shortcomings, the efforts made by the Member States will be continued and strengthened. The aim is to ensure a good water supply and to improve hygiene conditions.
In 2010, each inhabitant should have access to 35 liters of drinking water per day, in accordance with the standards of the World Health Organization (WHO). A priority objective is to raise the rate of access to drinking water by 100%, by providing communities in the basin that do not yet have access to drinking water, boreholes and modern wells. A drinking water supply scheme will be developed as part of the SDAGE. It integrates the project Aftout Es Saheli, for water supply in Nouakchott and food Dakar ( Lake Guiers ) and St. Louis.
Pilot health projects have been carried out to provide the population with sanitary facilities (latrines, showers, etc.) and provide them with drinking water through the construction of waterworks. The objective is to minimize the contact of man with the river water. The construction of these infrastructures concerns six villages (three in Mauritania and three in Senegal). After evaluation of this pilot phase, actions deemed positive will be extended to other areas by adapting them to local realities.
The delta and the Senegal valley have undergone profound upheavals, with the impoundment of the Manantali and Diama dams and the resulting developments (embankments, hydro-agricultural developments, etc.). These changes have had negative impacts on the functioning of certain ecosystems in the basin. These impacts are partly known and cited in different studies. Others are worse off, and their effects are poorly assessed, making it difficult to accurately measure the resulting risks. There was no system to alert the populations, the decision-makers and the technical services in charge of risks, nor the appropriate consultation frameworks.
To overcome all these shortcomings, OMVS has initiated the implementation of the Environmental Impact Mitigation and Monitoring Program (PASIE). This program, co-financed by the World Bank , the African Development Bank , the French Cooperation and the Canadian Cooperation, aims to define and implement a series of actions that are part of a global strategy for the protection and preservation of the environment. 'environment. It includes some twenty activities divided into six parts. It integrates, among others, the Tank Management Optimization Program (POGR), the Waterborne Diseases Program, and rural electrification., income generating micro-projects or the harmonization of national legislation. It made it possible to take care of the various problems related to the realization of the electric lines. To ensure permanent environmental monitoring throughout the basin, an Environmental Observatory was set up in May 2000. A monitoring system was designed according to the MERISE analysis method . The BASE SOE-OMVS software makes it possible to manage the actors, the information manipulated, the flows of information between the actors and the treatments carried out on this information and declined in actions.
Mitigating the effects of the hydro project
This component concerns the development of guidelines and their application by stakeholders, with regard to:
the location of transmission lines, with a view to minimizing their negative effects;
mitigation and environmental protection measures to be taken during construction;
environmental monitoring during construction work;
the ongoing protection and monitoring of the environment, to be ensured in the context of the operation of the Manantali dam.
The guidelines were designed jointly by various consulting firms. They were accepted by a workshop held in June 1998 in Bamako, attended by representatives of OMVS, its Member States, donors and non-governmental organizations operating in member countries. The guidelines are applicable for the planning, design, construction and operation of hydroelectric generating facilities.
Acquisition of right-of-way for power lines
This section sets out the procedures to be followed to obtain the rights required for the construction of transmission lines and substations on land owned or allocated to individuals and the conditions governing the use, during the execution of works, of land. occupied or used by individuals. The program also defines the principles and procedures for the installation of transmission lines on lands owned or administered by the state.
The procedures, taking into account the relevant regulations of each member country, were defined by the same consultancies as those who jointly developed the guidelines under the previous strand, and were also approved at the workshop. Bamako, in June 1998. They began to be implemented in Mali, after the Prime Minister signed a decree in December 1998 declaring that the construction of the Manantali-Kita-Bamako transmission line was in the national interest. .
Optimization of tank management
This component aims to fully understand the hydrological phenomena involved and their interactions with other natural resources, in order to use the water optimally and to derive maximum benefit from it, and to develop a manual accordingly. reservoir management . The consecutive regulation of the flow must:
to correct in part the negative effects recorded after the construction of the Diama and Manantali dams ;
to lead to an equitable distribution of water among its various uses;
mitigate negative effects on public health and the environment.
Three studies were conducted by different consulting firms:
The IRD has developed a reservoir management manual as part of an integrated water resources management (essentially a computer model giving instruction on the operation based on hydrological characteristics observed and agreed objectives of debt) ;
Roche International must evaluate the fishery resources of the Senegal River and their degree of dependence on the flood regime;
The third study focuses on the influence of floods on pastures, recession agriculture and groundwater recharge
The World Bank has agreed to fund a cost-benefit study of the various scenarios for dam operation and to help develop a Water Charter defining the principles and modalities for sharing available water resources between countries local residents and between their different uses (Société du Canal de Provence, Coyne and Belier). In accordance with the principles and procedures of the Water Charter, the flow objectives that the reservoir management manual must take into account are set. The Charter, approved by the Council of Ministers responsible for OMVS, entered into force in the year 2002.
The objective of this component is to implement an action plan to significantly reduce the prevalence of schistosomiasis and malaria in the medium term . The World Bank has approved terms of reference for pilot structural measures to eliminate or reduce the risk of bilharziasis infection. It is also planned to study and experiment with water level fluctuations in the Manantali and Diama reservoirs to control the snail that serves as a vector for bilharzia parasites. The ministries responsible for public health in the OMVS member countries must jointly design and implement an action plan for environmental health to combat water-borne diseases.
This component includes the following activities:
promotion of rural electrification;
targeted microprojects targeting women to generate income and reduce poverty;
promoting the development of next-generation hydroelectric sites (at Felou and Gouina Falls , Senegal River).
The first and third points were financed by the World Bank. Work on the second will start once the planned funding has been secured.
Coordination and monitoring
This last part concerns a series of environmental management and monitoring measures and the coordination mechanisms necessary for the effective implementation of the PASIE. Measures related to environmental management and monitoring include:
the creation of a database within the framework of an Environmental Observatory;
the strengthening of the Manantali limnology service;
the development of a general environmental action plan and an environmental code applicable to the part of the Senegal River basin occupied by OMVS member countries;
an environmental monitoring program for reservoirs and downstream ecosystems.
A three-month study by a consulting firm on the activities of the Environmental Observatory was completed at the end of 1998, with the final report available in 1999. Coordination mechanisms include:
a steering committee;
a commission of experts;
a monitoring committee;
a mechanism for coordinating environmental health programs and monitoring the effects of the implementation of the plan of action in this area;
the creation of National Coordinating Committees (NCCs) and Local Coordination Committees (CLCs).
OMVS has developed management and planning tools. Of these, a database has been compiled of flows from the Senegal River since 1904. The Organization publishes a monthly hydrological bulletin
Funding shall be provided by contributions from Member States to the Organization, loans from Member States, and on-lending to the Organization, grants, donations, legacies and other gifts, including technical assistance and technical assistance. loans contracted by the Organization with or without guarantee. France is a major financier; French cooperation contributed 1.1 million euros to the financing of the organization between 1998 and 2000.
Funding for the functioning of the various OMVS bodies is provided equally by the Member States.
Investment costs and operating expenses are allocated among the states according to the benefits that each state derives from the operation of the common works. This distribution of costs and expenses can be readjusted periodically according to the operating results of the entire system.
The States guarantee the repayment of the principal, the service of the interest and other charges related to the loans contracted by the Organization for the construction of the common works. Loans to be contracted by the Organization for the construction or operation of common works must be submitted to the approval of the Council of Ministers of the Organization.
States' contributions to the costs of construction and operation of common structures are pro rata to their share in the costs and charges of these works, and are defined by a distribution key. These contributions constitute advances made to the Organization. They must be reimbursed as soon as the resources of the Organization permit.
Cooperation for the control and rational exploitation of the resources of the Senegal River dates back to the colonial period.
the Mission of Studies and Development of the Senegal River (MEAF), in 1934;
The Senegal River Development Mission (MAS), in 1938, which became in 1959 a common organ in the island, is characterized by the setting up of successive organs: service of the riparian countries of the river,
The Inter-State Committee in 1963, which included Guinea, Mali, Mauritania and Senegal;
The Organization of Riverine States of the Senegal River in March 1968 in Labé (Republic of Guinea).
In reality, from the 19th century, various initiatives are undertaken for the development of the river:
Publication of the Agricultural Settlement Plan 1802;
Partial studies on the navigability of the river 1908 published in 1908 under the title of "Instructions Nautiques between Saint-Louis and Kayes (924 Km);
African Hydroelectric Union Project 1927;
Attempts of the mission of Studies of the Senegal River in 1935
Sector Studies and Development of the Lower Valley and the Delta by the Senegal River Planning Mission.
(1958/1960), the institutional process accelerates:
International Convention of 26 July 1963 relating to the General Management of the Senegal River Basin;
International Convention of 6 February 1964 relating to the Statute of the Senegal River;
General Statute of the Organization of Riverine States of Senegal approved at LABE (Guinea) on March 24, 1968 and amended in Conakry on February 3, 1970 by the Conference of Heads of State and Government of the OERS;
In March 1972
, the ultimate institutional framework, OMVS was born. Its creation comes in the context of serious climatic deterioration, marked by a persistent and severe drought that devastates the entire valley. Drought cycles, degradation of natural resources, rainy crops and flood recession lead to the impoverishment of the population and a high emigration of young people. Added to this is the rise of the salt tongue over nearly 250km, making the land unfit for cultivation.
Mali, Mauritania and Senegal then decided to join forces to master the availability of water and seek ways for a rational and coordinated exploitation of the basin's resources. The new Organization for the Development of the Senegal River has assigned itself as missions:
Achieve food self-sufficiency for the populations of the basin and the subregion,
To secure and improve the incomes of the populations,
Preserve the balance of ecosystems in the basin.
To reduce the vulnerability of the economies of the Member States of the Organization to weather and external factors.
Accelerate the economic development of the member states.
This common will of the member states is cemented by the ideals of solidarity, sharing, equity and culture of peace
The " Nouakchott Declaration" adopted in 2003
by the 13th Conference of Heads of State and Government of OMVS reiterated the missions of the organization and urged the Office of the High Commissioner to act in the following directions:
The pursuit and execution of ongoing programs and projects by promoting their integrative character;
Methodological innovation through the search for sustainability by ensuring overall cohesion;
The valorization of human resources and the modernization of management tools through the increased use and genuine control of new information and communication technologies.
The pursuit of sustainable development actions aimed at the triptych: economic growth, social progress and preservation of the environment.
In 2006, the Republic of Guinea joined the Organization